Quality records testifying to the satisfactory execution of project activities and quality objectives shall be legible, specify the work involved, properly maintained, readily retrievable, and available to authorized personnel.

In this procedure , we shall discuss in details pertaining to generating and maintaining the Quality Records for or by the construction.


Quality Records are documented evidence that construction conformed to requirements of contract as well as  design specifications.  Quality Records include:

  • Test and inspection reports
  • Monthly Reports
  • Material and equipment certificates required by specification
  • Equipment maintenance/preservation records
  • Acceptance and test data results
  •  Non conformance’s
  • Corrective action ordered/taken
  • Audit reports
  • Project activity
  •  Amount and type of material used
  • Frequency and accountability of submissions

Specified construction staff are liable for the preparation and maintenance of Quality Records. All records are identified as “Confidential”  in accordance with specific procedures established by contract agreement.


  • Site Quality Manager

In coordination with the Site Execution Manager or the other group manager who receives or generates quality records, identify the quality records that will be retained during construction and identify the record custodian by job title.

 In coordination with the client and other record custodians, define the Quality Records that are to be submitted to the client after completion of specified work or activity and identify this on the Standard Quality Records Control form.

The Site Quality Manager in coordination with the Site Manager will identify all Quality Records (or copies of records) that will be retained in the Records Retention center. Identify this on the Quality Control Records form.

Maintain all the Quality control Records form current and, if possible, before records are received on site or generated.


Establish and maintain a file system for inspection, testing, and l Quality Control records system.  The system shall ensure that records are easily available and protected.The system is to be identified on the Quality Records Control Form.

 Before filing the record the custodian shall review the documents to verify the following:

  • Documents are appropriate
  • Documents are complete
  • Entries are correct – Documents are legible
  • Documents signed by authorized person

The custodian review the document with the originator or originator’s supervisor.  Resolve any discrepancies with vendor documents through the purchasing department.

If any corrections required in the records to be accomplished by authorized personnel (i.e. record originator or originator’s supervisor) by entering the correct information and dating the change.


Maintain the records until they are requested by project turnover and/or assigned to the Records Retention Center.

The Site Quality Manager will generate a checklist and verify that all required quality records have been completed and those designated for turnover are included in the Turnover Package.

All supporting documentation relating to completion will be retained by organization until system acceptance by Client.  After system acceptance by Client, this documentation will be transferred to Client under separate correspondence.



DRY LEAN CONCRETE  is cement concrete with low slump as well as low cement which is being laid as a first layer for  rigid pavement over sub-base (GSB) , rolled & compacted by mechanical means.We will discuss with all sections one by one  as per following order:



This work should be carried out accordance with the wants of Contract Specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades , drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The work will include furnishing of all plant and equipment, materials , labour and performing all operations, in reference to the work as approved by the Engineer.
The design parameters of dry lean concrete , if any will be as stipulated in the contract drawings.


i) Clause 600 of MORT&H – 5th Edition
ii) IRC:SP: 49-2014
iii) IS: 16714-2018
iv) Relevant Approved Drawings


i) Batching Plant
ii) Paver with Electronic Sensor
iii) Dump Trucks
iv) Water Tanker
v) 8-10 Tonne Roller
vi) Hand Tools: Shovels, Broom, Wire brush, Straight edge
vii) Testing Equipment’s: 20 cm dia Density cone, Vibrating Hammer, Cube Moulds, Thermometer.


i) Site Engineer
ii) Surveyor (With Team)
iii) Operators, Supervisors and Laying Team


5.1 Source of Materials

Source the approval of material should be obtained from the Engineer at least 45 days before the scheduled commencement of the work. If later it is proposed to obtain the materials from a different source, Engineer will be notified for his approval at least 45 days before such materials are to be used.

5.2 Cement

Following sorts of cement could also be used with prior approval of the Engineer.
Ordinary Portland Cement 53 Grade IS:8112 Cement to be used may rather be obtained in bulk form. It will be stored in accordance with stipulations contained in Clause 1014.

5.3 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

GGBS should be used from approved source & complying the requirements of IRC SP: 49-2014

5.4 Aggregates

Aggregates for lean concrete will be crushed material complying with IS: 383. The aggregates will not be alkali reactive. The limits of deleterious materials will not exceed the requirements set out in IS: 383.

a)Coarse aggregate

Coarse aggregates will consist of clean, hard, strong, dense, non-porous and durable pieces of crushed stones or crushed gravel . The maximum size of the coarse aggregate will be 26.5 mm. The water absorption of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 3%.

b)Fine aggregate

The fine aggregate will consist of clean, natural sand or crushed stone sand or a combination of the two and will conform to IS: 383. Fine aggregate will be free from soft particles, clay, shale, loam, cemented particles, mica, organic and other foreign matter. The water absorption of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 3%.
The material after blending will conform to the grading as indicated in Table -1 of IRC SP 49-2014

Water used for mixing and curing of concrete will be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil, salt, acid, substance or other substances harmful to the finished concrete. It will meet the requirements stipulated in IS: 456.

5.6 Proportioning of Materials for the Mix

The mix will be proportioned with a maximum aggregate cement ratio of 14:1. The water content will be adjusted to the optimum as per Clause 4.2 of IRC SP 49 for facilitating compaction by rolling. The strength and density requirements of concrete will be determined in accordance with Clause 7.1 of IRC SP 49-2014 by making trial mixes.

5.7 Cement Content

The minimum cementitious   content in the lean concrete will not be less than 140 kg/cum. of concrete. If using GGBS minimum cement content shall not be less than 100 kg/m3.If this minimum cement content is not sufficient to produce concrete of the specified strength, it will be increased as necessary to obtained the strength.

5.8 Concrete strength

The average compressive strength of each consecutive group of 5 cubes made in accordance with IR: SP:49-2014 will not be less than 7 MPa at 7 days. In addition, the minimum compressive strength of any individual cube will not be less than  5.5 MPa at 7 days. The design mix complying with these requirements shall be worked out before start of work.

5.9 Sub-grade

The sub-grade will conform to the grades and cross sections shown on the drawings and will be uniformly compacted to the design strength in accordance with these specifications and specification stipulated in the contract. The lean concrete sub-base shall not be laid on a poor sub-grade , if any must be properly back-filled and compacted as per specification. As far as possible, the construction traffic will be avoided on the prepared sub-grade. A day before placing of the sub-base, the sub-grade surface will be given a light sprinkling  of water and rolled with one or two passes of a smooth wheeled roller after a lapse of 2-3 hours in order to stabilize loose surface and then check for compliance.

5.10 Construction

The pace and program of the lean concrete sub-base construction will be matching suitably with the program of construction of the cement concrete pavement over it. The sub base will be overlaid with cement concrete pavement only after 7 days after sub-base construction.

5.11 Batching and mixing

The batching plant will be capable of proportioning the materials by weight, each type of material being weighed separately. The cement from the bulk stock will be weighed separately from the aggregates. The capacity of batching and mixing plant should be at least 25 % higher than the proposed capacity for the laying arrangements & batching and mixing plant should have necessary automatic controls to ensure accurate proportioning and mixing. Other types of mixers will be got approved subject to demonstration of their satisfactory performance during the trial length.

6.0 Trial Stretch

A trial stretch shall be made to the required width and minimum of 60 metre length . The trial length shall contain construction of at least one transverse construction joint involving hardened concrete and sub-base to be laid subsequently, so as to demonstrate the soundness of the procedure. In one day not more than 30 m of trial stretch shall be laid. The in-situ density of the freshly laid concrete shall be determined by sand replacement method by making 3 density holes at equal distances that diagonally bisects the trial length, these shall not be made in the strip of 500 mm from the edges. The average of these shall be considered as 100%, and with this the field density of the regular work shall be compared. The hardened concrete may be cut for 3m width in the trial length and reversed to check the bottom surface for any segregation or honey-combing, if found necessary adjustments shall be made in the mix design.

6.1 Transportation and placing

The plant mix concrete shall be transported by sufficient number of trucks to ensure continuous, uniform supply of concrete to feed the laying Equipment. The mix shall be protected from the weather, by covering the tippers/dumpers with tarpaulin during the transit. The lean concrete shall be laid to the required widths, grades,camber and thickness with self-propelled, electronic sensor or mechanical paver.

The Equipment shall be capable of laying the materials in an even manner without segregation, to the specified thickness after the compaction. The paving machine should have facilities to give good initial compaction.

6.2 Compaction

The compaction shall commence as soon as the concrete laid and levelled to the full width till there is no further movement under the roller and the surface is closed. In addition to the number of passes required for compaction, there shall be a pass without vibration as preliminary pass and another at the end as final pass. The minimum dry density obtained shall be 97% of that achieved in trial length, and at a distance of 500 mm from edge it shall be 95% of that achieved in the trial length. The finished surface should be inspected immediately, and all loose, segregated or defective areas if any ,shall be corrected by using fresh lean concrete. Honeycombed areas, any level/ thickness deficiency and surface irregularities shall be corrected by concrete with 10 mm and down aggregates. Special care and attention shall be exercised during compaction near joints, kerb, channels, side forms, around gullies and manholes.

7.0 Quality Control Testing and Acceptance

  1. Curing

As soon as the lean concrete surface is completed, curing shall commence.

a) Curing shall be done by covering the surface by hessian cloth in two layers which shall be kept continuously moist for 7 days by sprinkling water.

b) If water-curing is not possible, the curing shall be done by spraying with liquid curing compound. The curing compound shall be white pigmented type with water retention index of minimum 90 percent, when tested in accordance with the test method given in Annexure-A of IRC SP 49 -2014 To check the efficiency of the curing compound, the supplier shall be required to provide the test certificate from a recognized laboratory. Curing compound shall be sprayed immediately after when rolling is complete & the surface shall also  be covered with wet hessian for three days.


The tolerances for thickness shall be ± 10 mm.


The dry density of the laid material shall be determined from density holes at locations equally spaced along a diagonal that bisects each 2000 sq.m or part thereof, of material laid each day. It shall not be less than 97% of design density .The control of strength shall be exercised by taking samples of dry lean concrete for making cubes at the rate of 3 samples for each 1000 sq.m or part thereof laid each day. The cube samples shall be compacted, cured and tested in accordance with IS: 51 6.

8.Safety Requirements/Measures

DLC laying team will wear personal protective equipment while producing, transporting and laying the mix. All safety measures will be taken as per approved plan.







There are so many mails received by viewer’s or visitor of my site to provide a clear idea how to face interview for a highway engineer.

First of all , keep in mind  employers wish to hire people that are confident in their interviews.But how do they judge this? and what are the simplest ways to point out confidence in an interview so you’ll get hired faster?
Here are the some best questions and answers which is usually asked during interview from highway engineer in any good organization.Hope it will be fruitful to you .

Q 1. Tell me about yourself?

Ans: “Hello, my name is XYZ. I am a professional with a degree/diploma in Civil Engg in 20xx. My qualifications include xyz years of experience in infrastructure project especially in Highway Project & deals with  execution aspect.I started my carrier with building project with XXX (Name of First company ) as a Diploma I Degree Trainee Engineer and after that gone to YYY  {Name of second company) Site Engineer; after 2017 I engaged in highway project and joined in ZZZ (Name of third company) as Highway Engineer & successfully completed xyz National /State highway project.

At present, I am responsible for raising RFI, making bed of Soil/GSB/WMM , maintain strip chart according to progress,planning for the next day prorgramme and   follow the instruction my seniors & do the whatever job assigned to me.

Q 2.What types of pavement is there?

Ans: Flexible /Rigid pavement.

Q 3.What is the crust thickness of pavement in your project?

Ans:650 mm(GSB 250 mm,CTB 200 mm,WMM (Crack Relief Layer)100 mm, DBM 50 mm & BC 50mm). For service road 330 mm- CTGSB 180 mm , WMM 100 mm (Crack relief layer )& BC 50 mm.

 Q 4. How much quantity of Earth work, GSB, WMM & Bituminous work is there? 

Ans: Earth Work -3000000 m³, GSB 200000 m³, CTB 170000³ ,WMM 100000 m³ & DBM/BC 140000m³ or whatsoever in your project.

Q 5.What is difference between Flexible Pavement & Rigid pavement?


  1. Deformation in the sub grade is transferred to upper layers.Have low flexural strength.
  2. Have low completion test but high repairing cost.
  3. Damaged by oil and chemicals.
  4. Design Based on load distribution factor


  1. Deformation in the sub grade
  2. is transferred to subsequence Layers.
  3. Have high flexural Strength.Have low repairing cost but high completion cost.
  4. No damage by oil or Greece.Design based on Flexural strength or slab action

Q 6 .How much staff is working under you , draw the organization chart & show your position ?

Ans: 4 staffs are working under me and draw the Organization chart on your own , show your position.

Q 7.Who is your consultant/IE ?

Ans : The name of my consultant/IE is xyz.

Q 8 .what is the name of Your IE Team Leader ?

Ans: The name of my consultant/IE Team Leader is Mr/Sri xyz.

Q 9.What is difference between OGL & NGL?

Ans:The first level taken of the natural ground without using any mechanical means is called NGL whereas the level taken after preparation of bed by using mechanical means Grader ,Doze, JCB & Roller  is called OGL.

Q 10.What do you know about this company?

Ans:As being an experienced candidate in this sector I’ve heard a lot about your organization.Your organization’s fame and prestige is what drove me here to apply for the  position when your job vacancy was posted on your site. I know that your company has been in business for over xyz years, with an excellent reputation in successful completion of highway project .Your company is providing good opportunities to new coming member owing to that I am sitting infront of you.

Q 11.Why dowel bar is being provided PQC pavement?

Ans: Dowel bars are required at expansion joints to transfer wheel loads to the adjacent slab. It is provided in the wheel paths only, it links the two adjacent structures by transferring loads across the joints.

Q 12.What is land width of shoulder in plain & rolling terrain?

Ans : Land width of shoulder will be either 2.0 m or 3.5 m depending  upon the situation.

Q 13.What do you understand by Sub-base & base course in flexible pavement ?

Ans : Sub – base course is the first  layer which is constructed immediately after the subgrade after the subgrade such as GSB & WBM etc.Base course is sandwich layer between wearing course and sub-base course.Base can have multiple layer such as CTB & WMM etc.

Q 14.What is the vertical clearance of LVUP VUP & CUP?

Ans : The vertical clearance of VUP,LVUP and CUP are 5.5 m,3.5m and 3.0 m simultaneously.

Q 15. What is the Minimum Right of way should be available (ROW) for 4 laning & 6 laning project? 

Ans: A minimum Right of Way (ROW) of 60 m should be available for development of a 4 laning and 6 laning project as per IRC SP 84-2014 and IRC SP 87-2013.

Q 16. What is the role of tie bar?

Ans :Tie bar is placed across longitudinal joints at the mid-depth of the slab .It prevent lanes from separation and differential deflections & transverse cracking These are installed by providing appropriate chair  or these are installed by providing appropriate (drilled) holes in the side forms depending on the size and spacing of bars. Generally 16 mm dia bar is being used.

Q 17.What is the role of joint sealant?

Ans : It seals the joint width and prevents water and dirt from entering the  joint which causing dowel bar corrosion and unexpected joint stress resulting from restrained movement.

Q18.What is the minimum relative percentage compaction requirement for embankment and subgrade ?

Ans: For embankment 95% & for subgrade 97 % relative compaction is required.

Q.19. What is the role of PVC dowel sheet ?

Ans :It serves to facilitate the movement of dowel bar.On one side of the joints,the dowel bar is encased in concrete.On the other side, however, the PVC dowel sleeve is bonded directly to concrete so that movement of dowel  bar can take place.

Q 20 Tell the level tolerance in Subgrade (For flexible Pavement) ?

Ans; Sub grade +/- 20 mm.

Q 21.What is bumping or pumping in subgrade & why occur?

Ans: A bumping/pumping in subgrade is similar to the concept to trying to compact something on matress means when soil compactor rolls over a prepared subgrade soil . it got compacted with staggered line but when roller cross over,  soil returns to its original position . This type of phenomena occurs when excess moisture is present in the prepared bed.

 Q 22.What do you understand by carriage way?

Ans: It is the width of the road which is used by the traffic for moving on it.It is generally central portion of the total land width and is paved and surfaced with the bituminous concrete  for service to the road users.

Q 23 .What is hard shoulder?

Ans:The hard shoulder is the area at the side of a motorway or other road where we are allowed to stop if our car breaks down.It is generally separated by white line.

Q 24. Why the saw cut joint is provided in road kerb?

Ans: Saw cut helps control cracking occurs due to shrinkage in Kerb.

Q 25. What is the role of separation member in Rigid Pavement? 

Ans: The separation membrane between concrete pavement slab and sub-base has mainly 4 function:

  1. It avoids the possibility of active aggressive agents from soil water being attached to the concrete slab.
  2. It prevents the loss of cement and water in immature concrete which significantly affects the strength and durability of hardened concrete.
  3. It reduces friction between concrete and sub-base.
  4.  It avoids the mixing up of sub-base materials and freshly placed concrete.

Q 26. What is the median width in raised condition in plain & Mountainous and Steep terrain?

Ans: In plain area generally 5.0 m but in built up area 2.5 m.In mountainous & steep terrain it is always 2.5 m.

Q 27. What is minimum bitumen content in DBM & BC for grade 1? 

Ans ; DBM 4.0 % & 5.2%

Q 28.Tell me the difference between Slope and Camber?

Ans : Slope is an area of ground that tends evenly upward or downward while camber is a slight convexity, or curvature of a surface of the road , so that water will flow off the sides .Camber is the transverse slope  provided to the road surface for the drainage of the rainwater for the better performance of the road. Camber can be written  as 1 in n or x%.

Q 29. What is the reason for rutting?

Ans: There are 5 main reason for rutting

  1. Heavy traffic axle.
  2. High temperature & using VG30 bitumen.
  3. Higher bitumen content.
  4. More fines.
  5. Less air voids in bituminous surface.

Q 30. For how many period flexible pavement design should be done?

Ans; Flexible pavement shall be designed for a minimum design period of 15 years or operation period, whichever is more.

Q 31. For how many period rigid pavement design should be done?

Ans; Rigid pavement shall be designed for a minimum design period of 30 years or operation period, whichever is more.

Q 32. ln tack coat & Prime coat which type of emulsion is used as per MORT&H 5th revision? 

Ans; In tack coat RS1 & in prime coat SS1

Q33.How much minimum longitudinal slope is required for lined drains and unlined drains ?

Ans: As far as possible, longitudinal slope shall not be less than 0.3 percent for lined drains and 1.0 percent for unlined drains.

Q 34. What should roughness Index be of finished wearing course?

Ans: Not more than 2000 mm/km for each lane in a km length.

Q35.What will the minimum thickness of bituminous overlay for pavement strengthening ?

Ans: The thickness of bituminous overlay for pavement strengthening shall not be less than 50 mm bituminous concrete after attending to the  requirements of profile corrective course.

Q 36. What  is the advantage of Cement Treated Base ?

 Ans: There are so many advantages of using CTB :

  1. CTB provides a durable, long-lasting base in all types of climates.
  2. Can speed up the Project Completion
  3. Can reduced thickness of pavement.
  4. Reduced Project Cost (approx. 8 to 10 thousand rupees per metre)
  5. Reduced consumption of aggregate.
  6. Reduced consumption of bitumen.

 Q 37. What will be the cross fall on straight sections of road carriageway, paved shoulders  of bituminous surface and paved portion of median for concrete surface in National Highway project?

Ans:The cross fall on straight sections of road carriageway, paved shoulders and paved portion of median will be 2.5% for bituminous surface and 2.0% for the cement concrete surface.

 Q 38. What is the justified minimum design speed for service road ?

Ans: A minimum design speed of 40 km/h shall be adopted for service roads. 

Q 39. In open country, on what space median openings shall be provided?

Ans: In open country, median openings shall not be spaced closer than 2 km. Additional controlled openings can be provided for inspection and diversion of traffic during repair and rehabilitation.

Q 40. In built area, on what space median openings shall be provided?

Ans; In built up area, median opening shall be provided as per site requirement and the spacing between two medians opening  in built up area shall not be less than 500 m.

Q 41.As per IRC what is the minimum dia of new pipe culvert, cushion & class to be used in National Highway?

Ans: As per IRC SP 84-014 minimum dia of new pipe culvert should not be less than 1200 mm & pipe should be NP4 pipe. Minimum depth of earth cushion over pipe excluding  road crust shall  not be less than 600 mm for new,reconstructed and retained culverts constructed in National Highway projects.

Q 42.What is the output of excavator having 1 m3 bucket?

Ans : 60 m3 /hour

Q 43. Why the mastic is being provided on deck slab ?

Ans: In most cases the protective layer is a Mastic Asphalt layer. This layer also serves as a second waterproofing layer. The non-porous mastic asphalt is usually used for the protective layer of the bridge pavement.

Q 44.What is your weakness?

  1. The first is my inability to share responsibilities.
  2. I lose my patience when I suspect that the other person isn’t doing it right. I’ve discussed these weaknesses with my supervisor as areas I’d like to improve.
  3. The third is I easily trust on anyone.

Q 45. Why you want to leave your present company?

Ans : You can tell any of the following points:

  1. I would really love to be part of your project from beginning to end, and I know I’d have that opportunity here.
  2. In my current role, I’ve learned many new skills. I’m looking for a position in which I can continue to grow that skill set in new circumstances.”
  3. I’ve learned a lot in my current role, but I’m looking for an opportunity that provides more challenges as I continue developing my skills and abilities.”

Q 46.Tell me your 5 strong point?

Ans: Tell the following points with cleverness:

  1.  Flexibility to handle any situation.
  2. Good Communication.
  3. Work under pressure.
  4. Dedication.
  5. Honesty

Q 47.Tell me your achievement in your carrier?

Ans: Tell any of the below point confidently:

  1. Re-organized something to make it work better
  2. Identified a problem and solved it
  3. Come up with a new idea that improved things
  4. Developed or implemented new procedures or systems
  5. Worked on special projects
  6. Received awards/Certificates

Q 48.What is your salary expectation?

Ans; This is your most important negotiation. Never  tell lie about what you currently  having, but feel free to include the estimated cost of all your fringes, which could well tack on 25 -30% more to your present “cash-only”salary.

Q 49 .How much time you required to join?

Ans: Always says one month but handle this situation very calmly, if you are ideal & have no job, can say within 7 days.