The layer between Bituminous Course and Crushed Aggregate Base Course (WBM & WMM) is called Prime Coat. Its purpose is to bind the loose aggregates of (WBM & WMM) so that it can be prepared for subsequent construction activity of laying bituminous layer.

The thin layer between two bituminous course is called Tack Coat. The purpose of Tack Coat is to form a bond between two bituminous layer. There is certain specification mentioned in any project for rate of application of Prime coat & Tack coat.

For measuring that application rate of Tack Coat & Prime Coat , we shall have a Aluminium or any other suitable light tray with dimension 200 mm(L) x 200 mm(B) x 20 mm(H) . A set of three plates are essential for this test.

Procedure :

1. Weigh all the three trays & numbered them.
2. Place these trays along the road in path at 10 metre interval between wheels of distributor.
3. Now pass the distributor .
4. After distributor crosses a length of 50 metre , remove the tray.
5. Immediately without losing time , weigh them to the first place of decimal.
6. Fill all readings into the format.
Take the average of them & compare with the specification. If more are less result is obtaining , adjust the speed of distributor .

Reference : IRC  2008

Format sample



SCOPE:  This Indian standard covers the physical and chemical requirements of cationic bitumen emulsion for application in  road works.


a. Glass Beakers :1 000 ml capacity .

b. Glass Rods : Polished 6.5 ± 0.5 mm in diameter and 175 ± 0.5 mm in length.

 c.Balance :500 g capacity accurate to 0.1 g. 

d.Oven :Thermostatically controlled at a temperature of 163 ± 2.8°C.


1.Take 3 beaker & glass rod & weigh them with the glass rod. This will be in grams(B).

2.Now take 50 ± 0.1 g of well mixed emulsion into each of the 3 beakers as stated above .

3.Now keep this  beaker along with the glass rod in the oven at 163 ± 2.8°C for 2 hours.

4.After completing two hours , taken out all three beaker  and stir them thoroughly.

5.Keep all three beaker with glass rod for another 1 hour then withdraw from oven and let them cool at room temperature’

6.Now weigh each beakers along with the rods & residue. This will be in grams(A)


Residue, percent = 2 (A – B)

where, A = mass of beaker, rod and residue, in g; and B = tare mass of beaker and rod, in g.

For the accuracy of the result take the average of them in %.


From this emulsion residue we can perform the following test:

1.Penetration Determination accordance with IS 1203.

2.Ductility Determination according with IS 1208

3.Determination of Solubility in Trichloroethylene with IS 1216




Scope:  This Indian standard covers the physical and chemical requirements of cationic bitumen emulsion for application in  road works.


a.Sieve :A 1.40 mm IS Sieve approximately 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in height and 150 micron IS Sieve approximately 200 mm in diameter.

b.Metal Dish : Round-bottomed about 500-ml capacity.

c.Steel Rod : A steel rod with rounded ends 13 mm in diameter.

d.Balance : 250 gram capacity with least count 0.1 g.

e.Cylinder : Graduated Cylinder of 100 ml capacity.

f.Pan :Shallow Pan of 100-mm diameter and of about 50-ml capacity.

g.Oven : A well-ventilated oven controlled at 110°C.


1.Water content in testing emulsion shall be 50% if not ; add necessary extra water .

2.Now screen the cement through 150 micron IS Sieve and take 50 gram weigh  into the metal dish. Weigh the 1.40 mm IS Sieve and shallow pan to nearest 0.1 (W1).

3.Add 100-ml of emulsion to the cement in the dish and stir the mixture at once with the steel rod with a circular motion making about 60 revolution per minute.

4.At the end of the one minute mixing period add 150 ml freshly boiled distilled water at room temperature and continue stirring for 3 min.

5.During mixing keep temperature of approximately 25°C . Pour the mixture through the weighed 1.40 mm IS Sieve and rinse with distilled water.

6.Place the sieve in weighed pan, heat in the oven at 110°C until dry and weigh to nearest 0.1 g (W2).

Calculation :

Coagulation value = ( W2-W1) /W3X 100

 where, W1 = mass, in g, of weighed sieve and pan;

W2 = mass, in g, of sieve and pan and the material retained on them; and

W3 = mass, in g, of binder in 100 ml of diluted emulsion determined according to Annex J of IS 8887:2018

Report : Report the coagulation value as percentage the nearest whole number.

 Precision : If we perform duplicate test; result should not be differ by the following :

 a.Cement Mixing Mass Percent          0 to 2  

b.Percent Repeatability Mass                  0.2

c. Percent Reproducibility Mass             0.4





This test method describes  how to find out the viscosity of bitumen emulsion with Saybolt Furol viscometer. It is applicable to all the emulsified asphalts specified in Specifications IS-3117-2004


a.Water Bath — Bath equipped with a stirring device and with means for heating or cooling, serves as a support to hold the oil tube in the vertical position and as a container for the bath liquid. 

The bath temperature necessary to maintain thermal equilibrium, while the liquid in the oil tube is swell stirred by the oil-tube thermometer, shall vary to within +/- 0.1˚C , for the specified test temperatures given below:

Temperature Range  19 to 27 ˚ C

Temperature of Test  25˚ C

The level of the bath liquid shall be not lower than 0.5 cm above the overflow rim of the oil tube.

b.Oil Tube Thermometers — Four thermometers graduated in  degree centigrade which can measures the temperature upto 100˚C or self-reading electronic thermometer.

c.Timing Device — A stop-watch graduated in divisions of 0.2 s or less and accurate to within 0.1 percent when tested over a 60 min period; or other equivalent timing device.

d.Withdrawal Tube or Pipette— Used for draining the gallery, with a smooth tip of about 3 mm outside diameter and about 2 mm inside diameter. 


1.Make the viscosity determinations in a room free from draughts and rapid changes in temperature.

2.For standardization, the room temperature shall be between 20˚C and 30˚C and the actual temperature shall be recorded & for routine testing , temperatures up to 38°C may prevail without introducing errors in excess of one percent.

3.Clean the oil tube with a solvent, such as benzene, and remove excess solvent from the gallery. Sieve the all sample  through a 150 micron  IS sieve before pouring into the oil tube. Pour the material in oil tube. Insert the cork stopper , taking care that the cork fits tightly enough to  prevent the escape of air, as tested by the absence of oil on the cork after it is withdrawn. If the test temperature is above that of the room, heat the material to not more than 1.5 ˚C above the temperature of test, and if the temperature is below that of the room, cool it to not more than 1.5˚C below the temperature of test.

4.Pour the material into the oil tube until it ceases to overflow into the gallery. Keep it well stirred with the oil tube thermometer, care being taken to avoid touching the outflow tube. Make an adjustment of  bath temperature to remain constant of sample temperature. if the indicated bath temperature varies by more than+/- 0.03˚C test result shall be discarded.

5.After the temperature of the material in the oil tube has remained constant with +/- 0.02°C of the desired temperature for 1 min with constant stirring, withdraw the oil tube thermometer and remove the surplus material from the gallery by the help of the withdrawal tube so that the level of the material in the gallery is below the level in the oil tube proper. 

6.Place the receiving flask in position in such that flask is not less than 10 cm and not more than 10 cm from the bottom of the bath. Remove the cork from its position and at the same time start the stop watch &  Stop the stoop watch  when liquid reaches the  designated mark of the receiving flask.

Reporting Results

1.Note the time in second as determined from above said procedure & it will be the Saybolt Furol Viscosity of the material at the temperature at which the test is made.

2.Report the results to the nearest 0.1 s for viscosity values below 200 second and to the nearest whole second for values 200 second or above.

Reproducibility Of Results

With proper attention to details of method of procedure, results indifferent laboratories with different operations under referee conditions of testing shall not differ by more than 0.5 percent.For more detail please my video in youtube.